To make matters worse, laws were passed in some states to limit voting rights for blacks. Moreover, southern segregation gained ground in when the U. Supreme Court declared in Plessy v.
Individual states, which determined most of the rights of American citizensgenerally limited voting rights to white property-owning males, and other rights—such as the right to own land or serve on juries—were often denied on the basis of racial or gender distinctions.
Although some slaves violently rebelled against their enslavement see slave rebellionsAfrican Americans and other subordinated groups mainly used nonviolent means—protests, legal challenges, pleas and petitions addressed to government officials, as well as sustained and massive civil rights movements—to achieve gradual improvements in their status.
During the first half of the 19th century, movements to extend voting rights to non-property-owning white male labourers resulted in the elimination of most property qualifications for voting, but this expansion of suffrage was accompanied by brutal suppression of American Indians and increasing restrictions on free blacks.
Slave owners in the South reacted to the Nat Turner slave revolt in Virginia by passing laws to discourage antislavery activism and prevent the teaching of slaves to read and write.
Despite this repression, a growing number of African Americans freed themselves from slavery by escaping or negotiating agreements to purchase their freedom through wage labour.
By the s, free black communities in the Northern states had become sufficiently large and organized to hold regular national conventions, where black leaders gathered to discuss alternative strategies of racial advancement.
In a small minority of whites joined with black antislavery activists to form the American Anti-Slavery Society under the leadership of William Lloyd Garrison. Wood engraving depicting Nat Turner leftwho in led the only effective slave rebellion in U.
Library of Congress, Washington, D. Newspaper notice for a pamphlet on the U. Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision.
Library of Congress, ng. His autobiography—one of many slave narratives —and his stirring orations heightened public awareness of the horrors of slavery.
Although black leaders became increasingly militant in their attacks against slavery and other forms of racial oppression, their efforts to secure equal rights received a major setback inwhen the U.
Supreme Court rejected African American citizenship claims. Although Lincoln did not initially seek to abolish slavery, his determination to punish the rebellious states and his increasing reliance on black soldiers in the Union army prompted him to issue the Emancipation Proclamation to deprive the Confederacy of its slave property.
After the American Civil War ended, Republican leaders cemented the Union victory by gaining the ratification of constitutional amendments to abolish slavery Thirteenth Amendment and to protect the legal equality of ex-slaves Fourteenth Amendment and the voting rights of male ex-slaves Fifteenth Amendment.
Despite those constitutional guarantees of rights, almost a century of civil rights agitation and litigation would be required to bring about consistent federal enforcement of those rights in the former Confederate states.
In its Plessy v. The Southern system of white supremacy was accompanied by the expansion of European and American imperial control over nonwhite people in Africa and Asia as well as in island countries of the Pacific and Caribbean regions.
Like African Americans, most nonwhite people throughout the world were colonized or economically exploited and denied basic rights, such as the right to vote. With few exceptions, women of all races everywhere were also denied suffrage rights see woman suffrage.
Page 1 of 4.rights to personal liberty established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and certain Congressional acts, especially as applied to an individual or a minority group. the rights to full legal, social, and economic equality extended to blacks.
Concerted efforts to desegregate schools statewide did not begin until after the U.S.
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of Little Rock was an important base for the expansion of the civil rights movement in the s.
The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, one of the least studied social movements of the s, encompassed a broad cross section of issues—from restoration of land grants, to farm workers rights, to enhanced education, to voting and political rights.
Oct 27, · The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the s and s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States.
The Civil Rights Movement: — Nancy MacLean Northwestern University After the s the civil rights movement confronted new issues and forged new alliances. Economic equality lagged behind social and political equality, especially in the nation's cities. The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
With roots starting in the Reconstruction era during the late 19th century, the movement .