Egyptian hieroglyphs with cartouches for the name " Ramesses II ", from the Luxor TempleNew Kingdom The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization. When defined exclusively as written work, Ancient Egyptian literature along with Sumerian literatureare considered the world's oldest literatures.
Questions therefore arise as to what is and what is not essential to it. Is a play what its author thought he was writing, or the words he wrote? Is a play the way in which those words are intended to be embodied, or their actual interpretation by a director and the actors on a particular stage?
Is a play in part the expectation an audience brings to the theatre, or is it the real response to what is seen and heard? Since drama is such a complex process of communication, its study and evaluation is as uncertain as it is mercurial. All plays depend upon a general agreement by all participants—author, actors, and audience—to accept the operation of theatre and the conventions associated with it, just as players and spectators accept the rules of a game.
Drama is a decidedly unreal activity, which can be indulged only if everyone involved admits it. Here lies some of the fascination of its study.
For one test of great drama is how far it can take the spectator beyond his own immediate reality and to what use this imaginative release can be put. But the student of drama must know the rules with which the players began the game before he can make this kind of judgment. These rules may be conventions of writing, acting, reading literature and writing argument table of contents audience expectation.
Only when all conventions are working together smoothly in synthesis, and the make-believe of the experience is enjoyed passionately with mind and emotion, can great drama be seen for what it is: Drama in some form is found in almost every society, primitive and civilized, and has served a wide variety of functions in the community.
There are, for example, records of a sacred drama in Egypt 2, years before the Common Era, and Thespis in the 6th century bce in ancient Greece is accorded the distinction of being the first known playwright.
Elements of drama such as mime and dancecostume and decor long preceded the introduction of words and the literary sophistication now associated with a play.
Moreover, such basic elements were not superseded by words, merely enhanced by them.
Only then can dramatic literature be discussed as such. The texts of plays indicate the different functions they served at different times.
Jan 17, · Reading Literature and Writing Argument by Jenny Perkins, Table of contents. Part I RHETORIC 1. The Literature and Argument Connection Inquiry Reading Literature to Expand Thinking Reading Literature to Explore an Issue Reading Literature to Analyze Argument 2. Reading Literature Improving Reading Skills William Carlos Williams's, "The /5(27). Thesis or Dissertation. S. Joseph Levine, Ph.D. Michigan State University East Lansing, Michigan USA ([email protected])) Become a Fan. Introduction. This guide has been created to assist my graduate students in thinking through the many aspects of crafting, implementing and defending a thesis or dissertation. With an emphasis on critical thinking and argument, REVEL™ for Literature for Composition offers superior coverage of reading, writing, and arguing about literature enhanced by an array of multimedia interactives that prompt student engagement. Throughout REVEL’s flexible online environment, the authors demonstrate that the skills.
Some plays embraced nearly the whole community in a specifically religious celebration, as when all the male citizens of a Greek city-state came together to honour their gods or when the annual Feast of Corpus Christi was celebrated with the great medieval Christian mystery cycles.
On the other hand, the ceremonious temple ritual of the early Noh drama of Japan was performed at religious festivals only for the feudal aristocracy.
But the drama may also serve a more directly didactic purpose, as did the morality plays of the later Middle Ages, some 19th-century melodramasand the 20th-century discussion plays of George Bernard Shaw and Bertolt Brecht.
Plays can satirize society, or they can gently illuminate human weakness; they can divine the greatness and the limitations of humans in tragedyor, in modern naturalistic playwriting, probe the human mind. Drama is the most wide-ranging of all the arts: Common elements of drama Despite the immense diversity of drama as a cultural activity, all plays have certain elements in common.
The characters may be superhuman and godlike in appearance, speech, and deed or grotesque and ridiculous, perhaps even puppets, but as long as they behave in even vaguely recognizable human ways the spectator can understand them.
Only if they are too abstract do they cease to communicate as theatre. Thus, the figure of Death in medieval drama reasons like a human being, and a god in Greek tragedy or in Shakespeare talks like any mortal.
A play, therefore, tells its tale by the imitation of human behaviour. The remoteness or nearness of that behaviour to the real life of the audience can importantly affect the response of that audience: The second essential is implicit in the first.
A situation must be represented on the stage, one recognizable and believable to a degree, which will animate the figures as it would in life.
Some argue that action is the primary factor in drama, and that character cannot emerge without it.
Since no play exists without a situation, it appears impossible to detach the idea of a character from the situation in which he is placed, though it may seem possible after the experience of the whole play.
Whether the playwright conceives character before situation, or vice versa, is arbitrary. More relevant are the scope and scale of the character-in-situation—whether, for example, it is man confronting God or a man confronting his wife—for that comes closer to the kind of experience the play is offering its audience.
Even here one must beware of passing hasty judgment, for it may be that the grandest design for heroic tragedy may be less affecting than the teasing vision of human madness portrayed in a good farce. A third factor is style.
Every play prescribes its own style, though it will be influenced by the traditions of its theatre and the physical conditions of performance.
Style is not something imposed by actors upon the text after it is written, nor is it superficial to the business of the play.
Rather, it is self-evident that a play will not communicate without it.
Table of Contents. Reading Comprehension Guide; Speed Reading Tips and Methods; Literacy Web Resources for Kids “Every man who knows how to read has it in his power to magnify himself, to multiply the ways in which he exists, to make his life full, significant and interesting.”. Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance.. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something ashio-midori.com of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction. Jan 17, · Reading Literature and Writing Argument by Jenny Perkins, Table of contents. Part I RHETORIC 1. The Literature and Argument Connection Inquiry Reading Literature to Expand Thinking Reading Literature to Explore an Issue Reading Literature to Analyze Argument 2. Reading Literature Improving Reading Skills William Carlos Williams's, "The /5(27).
Indeed, many a successful play has style and little else. By style, therefore, is implied the whole mood and spirit of the play, its degree of fantasy or realism, its quality of ritualism or illusionand the way in which these qualities are signaled by the directions, explicit or implicit, in the text of the play.Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance..
The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something ashio-midori.com of the problems, and much of the interest, in the study of dramatic literature stem from this contradiction.
For courses in Composition and Literature, Argumentative Writing, Writing about Literature, and Introduction to Literature. Based on the assumption that writing is valued only when it makes readers think, this anthology combines the content of literature and argument texts into one easy to use book.
Chapter 1, "Reading to Explore and Examine," opens with a brief discussion of academic argument and presents a core concept: Reading literature is a prompt for rooting out and exploring the underlying values that inform our responses to the world around ashio-midori.com: $ The Brief Prose Reader, like its full-length version, is based on the assumption that lucid writing follows lucid thinking, whereas poor written work is almost inevitably the product of foggy, irrational thought processes.
As a result, our primary purpose in this book is to help students think more clearly and logically—both in their minds and on paper. Latin American literature, the national literatures of the Spanish-speaking countries of the Western ashio-midori.comically, it also includes the literary expression of the highly developed American Indian civilizations conquered by the Spaniards.
Over the years, Latin American literature has developed a rich and complex diversity of themes, forms, creative idioms, and styles. Table of Contents.
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