Check our homepage for new, visually rich, fast and immersive experiences! Meaning of Human-Environment Interaction With Striking Examples The current crisis of climate change around the world can be better understood with the concept of human-environment interactions.
Mortazavi This paper, is based on the results of the authors surveys and in the Bampur Valley and aims to discuss relationships between humans and the environment in the Valley which has not been systematically evaluated.
The paper will focus on both present villages and ancient settlements around the Damin and Bampur Rivers.
Introduction A study of relations between human society and its environment encompass and include all interactions between man and the environment. It tries to understand, how the human community has adapted to or changed its surrounding environment to suit its needs and how much the environment affects people forcing new innovations and techniques.
Throughout the ages, man has been dependent on the environment and tried either to modify it to suit his needs or adapted his techniques to fulfil his requirements within the restricted opportunities. History has shown that civilizations have emerged within a suitable environment.
Similarly, the Hilmand River Raikes, In this vein, the author would like to state that Bampur was the gift of the Bampur River. The Bampur Valley, from Google Earth, July Interestingly, however, the environmental and ecological factors that create and develop an urban society Lamberg-Karlovsky, For instance, the environmental factors, such as availability of natural resources, climate and the behaviour of the river, were the main cause for the emergence and development of the Indus urbanization.
In a multi-causal framework, these factors contradictorily may have caused the weakening and collapse of the Harappan Civilization Thapar, Similarly, according to the author environmental factors can also be proposed as the cause for the emergence, development and decline of the Third Millennium BC settlements in the Bampur Valley Fig.
The two different areas, which are located in the Bampur Valley, have different environments. The Bampur Valley, Sites discovered around the Damin River In Januarya new systematic survey was conducted by the author on the Damin River and 20 sites were found in an area of about 46 sq km. Of the total 20 sites, 19 were dated to the Third Millennium BC; and include: Based on the ceramics, the 20th site Holonchak was occupied only during the Islamic Period Mortazavi, In both the surveys, sites were identified and defined on the basis of the findings of structures, features or ceramic scatter of 10 sherds or more per square meter.
Human and Environment interaction The Bampur valley interestingly has two completely different environments or ecological niches which were favoured for human settlements; the highlands located between Karvandar Mountain and Iranshahr; and the lowlands between Iranshahr and Jaz Murian Basin.
The survey indicates that all the ancient sites were located close to the Damin River or along its tributaries. It seems that the river gets absorbed into its porous bed and re-appears irregularly like springs and Qanats Fig.
This peculiar character of the Damin River restricts the agricultural yield around the river, while the rocky foothills surrounding the Damin River further limit the agricultural activity in the region supporting only small settlements both in the case of ancient sites and modern villages.
It is interesting to note that the location of the modern settlements are not very far from the ancient site and in most cases people of this area have built on the ancient remains or have utilized the land for agricultural purpose restricting any detail study of the past settlement patterns and archaeological excavations Fig.
Lack of water and cultivable land has thus forced people to follow the local ancient livelihood based on animal husbandry and horticulture. Although there is a lack of archaeological investigation in the region as mentioned above, the size of the ancient settlements and the environmental factors indicate that people in this region had been engaged with animal husbandry and horticulture even during the Third Millennium BC.
Springs and Qanats, main irrigation system in the Bampur Valley Fig 5: Tepe Gagor, many sites were destroyed for housing or agricultural activities The lowland area between Iranshahr and Jaz Murian Basin, along the Bampur River is favourable for agriculture especially in the middle and upper reaches of the Bampur River, particularly around Iranshahr.
Like the Damin the Bampur River is also absorbed into the porous detrius deposits, and re-appears at irregular intervals in the form of springs lower down the valley towards Bampur Fisher, When Stein visited the area, the Bampur River flowed from Iranshahr to Chah Hussaini in the west before flowing underground Stein, However during the survey in Julythe riverbed was completely dry and the region west around Iranshahr was undergoing drought conditions.
Since Qanats are frequently used to tap this underground water source, particularly as the surface flow has curious and erratic features Fisher, When Stein visited the Bampur Valley, he noted that the cultivated area extended 3 km north of Iranshahr right up to Bampur and beyond without any break and the width of the cultivated area along the right bank of the river gradually increased to a maximum of about 2.
It is interesting to note that during the survey many sites were discovered far from the modern settlements and the sizes of the sites around the Bampur River Lowland are much bigger than those around the Damin River Highland.
The modern villages and cities also follow a similar pattern in both the areas. The lowlands of the Bampur River are favourable for agriculture and although the river is not free flowing, Qanats and wells are used to tap the underground water for irrigation.
Conclusion In conclusion, it has been observed that the Bronze Age sites and modern villages around the Damin River are much smaller than those around the Bampur River as a result of the different environments in these two areas.
Though both the communities along the Damin and the Bampur Rivers in the past and today were equipped with similar innovations and technical resources, the environment and the ecology played a restrictive role in the development of the region and the two regions behaved differently.
Many ceramic samples discovered from the both areas show close cultural commonality between the above areas, however their environments were completely different. The two areas which are located in the Bampur Valley functioned as intermediary between important sites in the Indus Valley, Oman, Shahr-i-Sokhta and the Iranian Plateau.
These common functions interrelated these neighbouring areas; however, they experienced different human behaviours because of their different environment and occupations.This interaction is (a) of persons with persons, and (b) of groups with groups. The simplest aspect of interaction, or its primary phase, is contact.
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