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Study[ edit ] The term first language attrition FLA refers to the gradual decline in native language proficiency. As speakers use their L2 frequently and become proficient or even dominant in it, some aspects of the L1 can deteriorate or become subject to L2 influence.
The study of language attrition became a subfield of linguistics with a conference at the University of Pennsylvania called "Loss of Language Skills". The conference revealed that attrition is a wide topic, with numerous factors and taking many forms.
Decades later, the field of first language attrition gained new momentum with two conferences held in Amsterdam in andas well as a series of graduate workshops and panels at international conferences, such as the International Symposium on Bilingualism, the annual conferences of the European Second Language Association, and the AILA World Congress The outcomes of some of these meetings were later published in edited volumes.
In order to test for Dissertation groningen attrition, researchers use tests such as picture naming tasks, where they place a picture of an item in front of the participant and ask them to name it, or by measuring lexical diversity in the speaker's spontaneous speech speech that is unprompted and improvised.
In both cases, attriters performed worse than non-attriters. The participants demonstrated a complete retention of the underlying syntactic structure of their L1. Notably, they exhibited the V2, verb second, word order present in most Germanic languages, except English.
This rule Dissertation groningen the tense-marked verb of a main clause to occur in the second position of the sentence, even if that means it comes before the subject e.
These speakers' ability to form sentences with V2 word order was compared against L2 learners who often overproduce the rigid SVO word order rather than applying the V2 rule.
Although the study did not show evidence for attrition of syntax of the person's L1, there was evidence for attrition in the expatriates' morphology, especially in terms of agreement.
They found that the bilinguals would choose to use the unmarked morphemes in place of the marked one when having to differentiate between gender and plurality; also they tend to overgeneralize where certain morphemes can be used.
That is, even under language attrition the syntax is largely unaffected and any variability observed is thought to be due to interference from another language, rather than attrition.
In particular, they can have variability on certain rules which native speakers apply deterministically. This assumption is in line with a range of investigations of L1 attrition which argue that this process may affect interface phenomena e.
A study of five native speakers of American English who moved to Brazil and learned Portuguese as their L2 demonstrates the possibility that one could lose one's L1 accent in place of an accent that is directly influenced by the L2. They envisioned a test to be given to American State Department employees that would include four linguistic categories syntaxmorphologylexiconand phonology and three skill areas readinglisteningand speaking.
A translation component would feature on a sub-section of each skill area tested. The test was to include linguistic features that are the most difficult, according to teachers, for students to master.
Such a test may confound testing what was not acquired with what was lost. The use of translation tests to study language loss is inappropriate for a number of reasons: Yoshitomi  attempted to define a model of language attrition that was related to neurological and psychological aspects of language learning and unlearning.
She discussed four possible hypotheses and five key aspects related to acquisition and attrition. Studies by Russell  and Hayashi  both looked at the Japanese negation system and both found that attrition was the reverse order of acquisition.
Yoshitomi and others, including Yukawa,  argue that attrition can occur so rapidly, it is impossible to determine the order of loss. Language items that are acquired first also happen to be those that are most reinforced. As a result, hypotheses 1 and 2 capture the main linguistic characteristics of language attrition  3.
As a child grows, he becomes less able to master native-like abilities. Furthermore, various linguistic features for example phonology or syntax may have different stages or age limits for mastering.
Furthermore, they discuss a number of cases where a native-like L2 was acquired during adulthood. The regression hypothesis[ edit ] The regression hypothesis, first formulated by Roman Jakobson in and originally formulated on the phonology of only Slavic languages,  goes back to the beginnings of psychology and psychoanalysis.
It states that that which was learned first will be retained last, both in 'normal' processes of forgetting and in pathological conditions such as aphasia or dementia. However, regression is not in itself a theoretical or explanatory framework.
She finds some evidence that later-learned rules, such as diminutive and plural formation, indeed erode before earlier learned grammatical rules.
The threshold hypothesis states that there may be a level of proficiency that once attained, enables the attriting language to remain stable. Age effect[ edit ] Children are more susceptible to first language attrition than adults.The Interuniversity Graduate School of Psychometrics and Sociometrics (IOPS) is an institute for the advanced dissertation training in psychometrics and sociometrics; it also coordinates the high-quality research in this area.
Papers organized by Categories, then by Dates. A short description is provided below each title. Wietse Zweitze Venema Contact information is given at the end of this document. Click here if you need to know how I pronounce my name.. Current life. I am a Google software engineer, based at the New York office, currently working on Binary Authorization for Cloud.
The Frisians are a Germanic ethnic group indigenous to the coastal parts of the Netherlands and northwestern Germany. They inhabit an area known as Frisia and are concentrated in the Dutch provinces of Friesland and Groningen and, in Germany, East Frisia and North Frisia (which was a part of Denmark until ).
The Frisian languages are still spoken by more than , people; West . Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, ashio-midori.com process is generally caused by both isolation from speakers of the first language and the acquisition and use of a second language, which interferes with the correct production and comprehension of the ashio-midori.com interference from a second language is likely experienced to some extent by all bilinguals, but is most.
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