Overview[ edit ] A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an 'expert' in their field. Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence.
The representational primitives are typically classes or setsattributes or propertiesand relationships or relations among class members. The definitions of the representational primitives include information about their meaning and constraints on their logically consistent application.
In the context of database systems, ontology can be viewed as a level of abstraction of data models, analogous to hierarchical and relational models, but intended for modeling knowledge about Definition of writing, their attributes, and their relationships to other individuals.
Ontologies are typically specified in languages that allow abstraction away from data structures and implementation strategies; in practice, the languages of ontologies are closer in expressive power to first-order logic than languages used to model databases.
Due to their independence from lower level data models, ontologies are used for integrating heterogeneous databases, enabling interoperability among disparate systems, and specifying interfaces to independent, knowledge-based services.
In the technology stack of the Semantic Web standards , ontologies are called out as an explicit layer.
There are now standard languages and a variety of commercial and open source tools for creating and working with ontologies. The term had been adopted by early Artificial Intelligence AI researchers, who recognized the applicability of the work from mathematical logic  and argued that AI researchers could create new ontologies as computational models that enable certain kinds of automated reasoning .
Some researchers, drawing inspiration from philosophical ontologies, viewed computational ontology as a kind of applied philosophy . A widely cited web page and paper  associated with that effort is credited with a deliberate definition of ontology as a Definition of writing term in computer science.
The specification takes the form of the definitions of representational vocabulary classes, relations, and so forthwhich provide meanings for the vocabulary and formal constraints on its coherent use. One objection to this definition is that it is overly broad, allowing for a range of specifications from simple glossaries to logical theories couched in predicate calculus .
But this holds true for data models of any complexity; for example, a relational database of a single table and column is still an instance of the relational data model. Taking a more pragmatic view, one can say that ontology is a tool and product of engineering and thereby defined by its use.
From this perspective, what matters is the use of ontologies to provide the representational machinery with which to instantiate domain models in knowledge bases, make queries to knowledge-based services, and represent the results of calling such services.
About WAW Write a Writing is an inspirational project with utmost effort to help individuals, professionals, students, bloggers, marketing guys and creative souls in their writing ashio-midori.com are various elements which contrive in creating the perfect, epic or premium level content. Definition of Objective Writing. Objective writing is writing that you can verify through evidence and facts. If you are writing objectively, you must remain as neutral as possible through the use. 2 a: writing designed for publication in a newspaper or magazine. b: writing characterized by a direct presentation of facts or description of events without an attempt at interpretation. c: writing designed to appeal to current popular taste or public interest.
In essence, committing to an ontology e. This is analogous to the requirement that rows of a database table or insert statements in SQL must be consistent with integrity constraints, which are stated declaratively and independently of internal data formats.
For instance, a conventional database model may represent the identity of individuals using a primary key that assigns a unique identifier to each individual. However, the primary key identifier is an artifact of the modeling process and does not denote something in the domain.
Ontologies are typically formulated in languages which are closer in expressive power to logical formalisms such as the predicate calculus.
This allows the ontology designer to be able to state semantic constraints without forcing a particular encoding strategy.
For example, in typical ontology formalisms one would be able to say that an individual was a member of class or has some attribute value without referring to any implementation patterns such as the use of primary key identifiers.
Similarly, in an ontology one might represent constraints that hold across relations in a simple declaration A is a subclass of Bwhich might be encoded as a join on foreign keys in the relational model. As in other forms of data modeling, there is knowledge and skill required.
The heritage of computational ontology in philosophical ontology is a rich body of theory about how to make ontological distinctions in a systematic and coherent manner.
When ontologies are encoded in standard formalisms, it is also possible to reuse large, previously designed ontologies motivated by systematic accounts of human knowledge or language . In this context, ontologies embody the results of academic research, and offer an operational method to put theory to practice in database systems.
KEY APPLICATIONS Ontologies are part of the W3C standards stack for the Semantic Web, in which they are used to specify standard conceptual vocabularies in which to exchange data among systems, provide services for answering queries, publish reusable knowledge bases, and offer services to facilitate interoperability across multiple, heterogeneous systems and databases.
The key role of ontologies with respect to database systems is to specify a data modeling representation at a level of abstraction above specific database designs logical or physicalso that data can be exported, translated, queried, and unified across independently developed systems and services.
Successful applications to date include database interoperability, cross database search, and the integration of web services.Definition of Descriptive Writing.
Take some time to think about the differences between a short and a long conversation that you've had with someone about a specific event. Write definition, to trace or form (characters, letters, words, etc.) on the surface of some material, as with a pen, pencil, or other instrument or means; inscribe: Write your name on the board.
See more. Transfer of ownership of a property, or of benefits, interests, liabilities, rights under a contract (such as an insurance policy), by one party (the assignor) to another (the assignee) by signing a document called deed of ashio-midori.come with ashio-midori.com also absolute assignment and collateral assignment.
Transfer of ownership of a property, or of benefits, interests, liabilities, rights under a contract (such as an insurance policy), by one party (the assignor) to another (the assignee) by signing a document called deed of ashio-midori.come with ashio-midori.com also absolute assignment and collateral assignment.
Definition essays can be written on many different topics which base on comparison of two or more subjects, theories, personalities, events etc. Delicate approach to the choice of a topic or keen understanding of the one topic is the key element of good essay writing.
Definition of Descriptive Writing. Take some time to think about the differences between a short and a long conversation that you've had with someone about a specific event.