Cause of football injuries

Guide to Sports Medicine Football Injuries Football combines speed, agility, power and strength and therefore requires quick movements and changes in direction in addition to avoiding contact with others in a high speed environment; consequently, the risk of injury is fairly high. The most common football injuries are listed below: Metatarsal fracture What is a metatarsal fracture? A metatarsal fracture is one of the most common injuries in football.

Cause of football injuries

Comments 0 It's intuitive to think that hits to the head, especially in football, can have a negative impact on the brain. Now, we're getting the data to back that up. How else to explain it? A scientist at the University of Tulsa's Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Bellgowan had been scanning the brains of college football players, comparing the results to scans of non-players.

His focus was on the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped area deep inside the brain that plays an important role in emotional control and memory formation.

Bellgowan knew that the hippocampus was sensitive to traumatic brain injury. That shrinkage of the region was a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. That a similar reduction in hippocampal volume also corresponded with chronic traumatic encephalopathy CTEa neurodegenerative disease linked to football, boxing and other contact sports.

Still, he expected to see little difference in hippocampal size between a group of 50 college players and 25 non-players, mostly because everyone in the study was relatively healthy and young.

And then Rashimi Singh, a fellow researcher at the Laureate Institute, brought a set of initial Cause of football injuries to Bellgowan's office. A group of 25 players with no history of reported concussions Cause of football injuries hippocampuses that were, on average, 14 percent smaller than those of a control group of 25 males of similar age and health who didn't play contact sports.

Moreover, the same brain region in a second group of 25 players who had suffered at least one clinically-diagnosed concussion was, on average, 25 percent smaller than the control group -- a larger difference in volume, Bellgowan says, than the variations scientists have observed between the brains of healthy people and patients suffering from Alzheimer's or severe depression.

TBI: Get the Facts | Concussion | Traumatic Brain Injury | CDC Injury Center

It was really surprising. While much of the health and safety debate over football and other contact sports focuses on the risk of developing severe, headline-grabbing neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS and CTE, a growing body of evidence suggests that both concussions and subconcussive blows can alter mood, cognition and behavior while causing damage and structural changes to the brain.

In other words, contact sports may be worse for your cognitive health than previously assumed, even if you don't ultimately end up in a dementia ward.

Cause of football injuries

Bellgowan and his co-authors also found that the longer an athlete had played football, the smaller their left hippocampal region was on average. Football players also scored lower than non-players on tests of cognitive processing speed -- and again, football career length had an inverse relationship with test results.

An international research team detected micro-structural brain damage in concussed male and female college hockey players -- damage that can't be seen with standard hospital-based MRI scans. Purdue University researchers studying high school football players over the course of two seasons found: A Dartmouth University study found " small but significant" changes to the brains of college hockey and football players over the course of a season when compared to non-contact sport athletes, even though none of the hockey and football players sustained a reported concussion.

In addition, the contact sport athletes who performed worse than expected on cognition tests at the end of the season had greater brain changes.

An ongoing Cleveland Clinic study of nearly active and retired boxers and mixed martial arts fighters already has detected changes in the volume of specific brain regions and found that higher exposure to head trauma correlates with lower brain volume and reduced performance on cognitive testing.

A study of 13 retired NFL players found major, previously unobserved abnormalities in brain activity in their frontal lobes, the area of the brain responsible for executive functions like planning ahead -- a result that suggests that even players who perform relatively well on standard neuropsychological tests may have brain damage that causes them to struggle in everyday life.

A study of retired NFL players published in the Journal of Neurotrauma linked repeated concussions and head trauma to pituitary dysfunction and reduced levels of growth hormone and testosterone, which can result in metabolic syndrome -- a group of risk factors that raise the risk of heart disease and diabetes -- as well as erectile dysfunction and a reduced quality of life.

A National Institutes of Health-funded study found that the brains of concussion patients continue to show physical abnormalities and signs of injury months after symptoms such as dizziness, headaches and memory loss ease or resolve -- which could mean that current return-to-play guidelines aren't conservative enough.

Similar to the above, a National Football League Charities-funded study of college football players who were not diagnosed with concussions over the course of a season found that physical changes to their brains occurred after as few as 10 to 15 hard hits and that six months following the end of football season, imaging scans still "showed changes consistent with mild brain injury in about half of the players.

Of course, the above studies come with serious caveats: While scientists agree that getting hit in the head can result in both brain changes and damage, they don't always know if the former indicates the latter -- and even when it does, the extent of the harm remains unclear.

Some towns are cutting high school and youth football due to worries over safety and brain injuries. Getty Images Take Bellgowan's study. The authors acknowledge that absorbing repeated blows to the head while playing football may not be the cause of hippocampal differences.

Genetic variations, environment and high levels of stress hormones may all play a role. Bellgowan suspects that football-induced head trauma is a key factor, mostly because the difference between players and non-players is so pronounced.

He also says that the inverse relationship between reaction time and hippocampal volume and years played points toward a cumulative effect -- more hits producing greater damage over time. If Bellgowan can secure funding for a follow-up study, he wants to study younger players, use more sensitive neuropsychological tests to screen for subtle cognitive impairment and test his hypothesis that the body's inflammatory markers may be crossing the blood-brain barrier and causing or influencing hippocampal changes.

Looking forward, he'd like to study NFL retirees, too, the better to get a cross-sectional picture of how brain changes develop -- or don't develop -- over time.

In diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, hippocampal shrinkage can take place years before symptoms emerge.* Customers may use other coupons as displayed through the StatCoin Exchange *Bespoke Reports may be requested at our customer’s discretion or may include: dossiers, market analysis, executive summaries, industry reports, country reports, survey/polls, and trend and outlook analysis.

Injuries occur during football games and practice due to the combination of high speeds and full contact. While overuse injuries can occur, traumatic injuries such as concussions are most common.

The force applied to either bringing an opponent to the ground or resisting being brought to the ground makes football players prone to injury. What Is CTE? Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Explained. The condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was formerly believed to exist primarily among boxers, and was referred to as dementia is a progressive degenerative disease which afflicts the brain of people who have suffered repeated concussions and traumatic brain injuries, such as athletes who take part in.

Concussions Cause Long-Term Effects Lasting Decades

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is a long-term consequence of single or repetitive closed head injuries for which there is no treatment and no definitive pre-mortem diagnosis.

It has been closely tied to athletes who participate in contact sports like boxing, American football, soccer, professional wrestling and hockey. Football helmets, despite their padding, aren't actually the greatest at preventing concussions—and that's not news.

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Blunt Force Head Trauma – Cause And Effect